Low Carb / Keto Ice Cream

The last few days have been rather hot and humid out and one of my young adult sons wanted ice cream.  Since we both eat low-carb now, this necessitated me inventing a low carb ice cream. Not having an ice cream maker, I tapped into my years of cooking experience for the “how to”. The two flavors I made were both were delicious and super easy to make. 

Carb Content

Japanese Black Sesame Keto Ice Cream

The Japanese Black Sesame Keto Ice Cream had only 3.5 gms of carbs per serving (2 1/2 grams of carbs per serving from the touch of date syrup as sweetener and 1 gm of carbs from the 20 gms of Black Sesame Paste. The only other ingredient was whipping cream (no carbs!).

Keto Coffee Chip Ice Cream

The Keto Coffee Chip Ice Cream had 10 gms per serving, as more date syrup was needed to offset the bitterness of the the concentrated powdered espresso powder.  There were 8 grams of carbs per serving from the date syrup, but less could be used if you don’t want as intense a coffee flavor as I did. There were 2 gms of carbs from the 1/2 of a dark chocolate bar that I pounded into chocolate “chips”.

 

The “Recipe”

The recipe to make Keto Ice Cream is more of a method, than a recipe. It can be used for any variety of keto ice cream flavors you or I can dream up.

Ingredients

1 1/2 cups (12 oz) heavy whipping cream

4 oz heavy whipping cream

1 – 3 Tbsp Silan (also called Date Syrup or Date Molasses – available at most Middle Eastern grocery stores)

Either:

(A) 2 Tbsp black sesame paste (available from a Japanese, Korean or some Chinese grocery stores)

OR

(B) 1 – 1.5 Tbsp powdered espresso powder 

& 45 gms of dark chocolate pounded into small “chips” 

Method

In a stand mixer or using a large bowl and a hand-mixer, whip the 1 1/2 cups of heavy whipping cream into soft peaks.*

* don’t over beat it, or it will become butter!

In a separate bowl, beat the 4 oz heavy whipping cream to soft peaks.

With a rubber spatula, gently fold in the flavoring you are using (in this case, either the black sesame paste or the espresso powder and chocolate chips). Fold gently, so as not to deflate the whipped cream.

Now gently fold the flavored whipped cream into the bowl of plain whipped cream, just until blended.

Pour the soft mixture into a freezer-safe, 1 quart / 1 litre glass container with a locking lid.

Freeze for 6 hours or overnight.

(For softer ice cream, stir mixture every hour and a half, scraping down the sides with a spatula and continue freezing).

Enjoy!


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Oh Nuts!

One of the challenges with trying to lose weight is reaching a plateau – where one’s weight stays the same for an extended period of time. When eating a low-carb or ketogenic diet, some foods such as nuts are a common pitfall. Despite being a rich source of heart healthy monounsaturated fats, some nuts contain high amounts of carbohydrate.


Carbs Per Serving of Nuts

Serving Size

A serving size* of nuts is generally considered one ounce (1 oz.) which is about a handful of an ‘average-sized hand’. The problem with using this kind of measurement is that not all nuts have the same mass per volume, nor does everybody have the same size hand!

Here are the number of nuts per ounce for common varieties:

  1. Cashew 16-18 nuts per ounce
  2. Pistachio 45-47 nuts per ounce
  3. Almond 22-24 nuts per ounce
  4. Pine Nuts ~3 Tbsp. (160 kernels) per ounce
  5. Hazelnut 1012 nuts per ounce
  6. Walnut 8-10 halves per ounce
  7. Peanut 27-29 nuts per ounce
  8. Macadamia 10-12 nuts per ounce
  9. Pecan 16-18 halves per ounce
  10. Brazil Nuts 6-8 nuts per ounce

* When eating shelled nuts, many people eat a few palm fulls, so I’m going to indicate the carbs for a 1 oz and 3 oz serving.

Carbs are listed as “net-carbs” (i.e. once fiber (which is not digestible) has been subtracted from the total amount of carbohydrate).

Carbohydrates per Ounce

  1. Cashew 
    Cashews aren’t actually “nuts” but are the fruit of a cashew apple, and contain 9 gms of carbs per 1 oz (~17 nuts) – that’s 27 gms of carbs for 3 oz (~ 3 average handfuls). To think of this in terms of “carb foods”, that’s about the same number of carbs as in 2 slices of bread!


2. Pistachio 
Pistachios contain 6 gms of carbs per 1 oz serving ~ 46 nuts – that’s 18 gm of carbs in an average 3 handful serving (3 oz) a little more than a slice of bread.


3. Almonds

Almonds contain approximately 3.5 gms of carbs per ounce ~23 nuts, which amounts to 10 gms of carbs for 3 oz (~3 average-sized handfuls).


4. Pine Nuts 

Pine nuts (also called pignolias) contain 3 gms of carbs per oz. (which is about 3 Tbsp.)

 


5. Hazelnut 

Hazelnuts (~11 nuts per ounce) contain ~2 1/2 gms of carbs for a 1 oz serving (~11 nuts) / 7 gms of carbs for 3 oz / 3 average handfuls.

 


6. Walnut 

An ounce of walnuts (9 halves per ounce) contain the same amount of carbs as an ounce of hazelnuts (~2  1/2 gms of carbs for a 1 oz serving / 7 gms of carbs for 3 average handfuls or ~ 27 halves.


7. Peanut 

An ounce of peanuts (~28 shelled peanuts per ounce) also contain the same amount of carbs as an ounce of hazelnuts or walnuts (~2  1/2 gms of carbs for a 1 oz serving.

 


Top three low carb high fat / keto-friendly nuts:

Macadamias, Pecans and Brazil nuts are the 3 most low-carb and keto-friendly nuts – having between 4 and 5 gms of carbs for a 3 oz serving! That’s far better than the 27 gm of carbs for 3 oz of cashews and 18 gm of carbs for 3 oz of pistachios!

8. Macadamia

Macadamias have slightly more than 1  1/2 gms of carbs for a 1 oz serving (~11 nuts) / 5 gms of carbs for a 3 oz serving.

 


9. Pecans

Pecans have 1.3 gms of carbs for an ounce of nuts (~17 halves) / 4 gms of carbs for a 3 oz serving .

 

 

 


10. Brazil nuts

 

Brazil Nuts also have only 4 gms of carbs for a 1 oz. serving (~ 7 nuts)

 


A Tough Nut to Crack

Back in the day, eating nuts meant cracking nuts.

It was common to see living room tables with bowls of nuts in their shell, with nutcrackers and nut-picks readily available for use.

Each house had its preference for the style of nutcrackers they insisted were the best.  Growing up, we had ones like those above.

Nuts and “Carb Creep”

Carb creep” is when we think we are eating low carb, but hidden sources of carbs are sneaking into our diet without us being aware of it.

When I was pondering why I had reached my own weight plateau, I knew carb creep had to be the reason – but from where?

After analyzing my diet, it seemed that nuts might be the source and it was.

My biggest single downfall was that I like to crack and eat pistachios on the weekend, while working on my foreign language studies – and it is WAY too easy to crack them and eat copious amounts!  In fact, I am somewhat of an expert at shelling them, as my brother and I were placated by our parents with bags of pistachios, on long car trips. To get my “fair share”, I learned to be quite efficient at shelling them and so it seems, I haven’t lost that ‘skill’.

Over the course of several hours I can shell and eat 1/2 to 1 lb of pistachios without really noticing eat, and in the worst case scenario that’s almost 100 gms of hidden carbs!

Add to that a handful or two of almonds a day (another hidden 10 gm of carbs per day) and the source of my “carb creep” became clear.

Portioning

Of course to try to prevent eating too many, nuts can be portioned out in 1 oz or 3 oz ‘servings” and the rest put away for another time, but it is still way too easy for someone who is hungry or tired to mindlessly reach for a handful or two of nuts. It seemed to me that having large containers of shelled nuts that are too easy to reach for, may not be the best solution.

Unshelled Nuts

Replacing shelled nuts with nuts in the shell, like we ate in the “old days”, turns out to be a far more effective solution.

It’s very hard to over eat nuts you have to shell first.

It is much s-l-o-w-e-r to crack and then eat these almonds than these: 

 

…or to crack and eat these Brazil nuts  than these: 

Bingo!

Since pecans are a much lower carb nut than pistachios, they have become my go-to nut from the nut-bowl…and let me assure you, it takes quite a while to shell 17 halves for a mere 1.3 carbs! In fact, I’m pretty sure I expend more energy cracking them, than I take in, eating them.

The Right Tools for the Right Job

Despite having a variety of nutcrackers, I found pecans a “very tough nut to crack” – with them frequently flying out of the standard pinch-style cracker.

I found out that there is a special “pecan cracker” that one can order that apparently does the job very well and looks like this:

…but the little contraption below that I invented in my garage (with a d-clamp and a stick-on felt pad, works great, and I use it for pecans, walnuts and even hazelnuts. Even eating walnuts, which are a higher carb nut – it takes quite a while to shell 9 halves (2  1/2 gms of carbs).

How I can help

For the last 2 years, I have helped my clients lose weight and keep it off using a low-carb approach. More recently, I am ‘practicing what I preach‘ (as you can read about in the blogs titled “A Dietitian’s Journal”). The things I am learning “doing it” adds to what I know academically – which makes me able to coach people much more effectively.

Have questions?

Why not send me a note using the “Contact Us” form on the tab above.

To our good health!

Joy

Copyright ©2017 BetterByDesign Nutrition Ltd.  LEGAL NOTICE: The contents of this blog, including text, images and cited statistics as well as all other material contained here (the “content”) are for information purposes only.  The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, medical diagnosis and/or treatment and is not suitable for self-administration without regular monitoring by a Registered Dietitian and with the knowledge of your physician. Do not disregard medical advice and always consult your physician with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or before implementing something you have read in our content. 


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1977 Dietary Recommendations — forty years on

Since 1977, the dietary recommendations in Canada and the US has been for people to consume a diet with limited fat and where “complex carbohydrates” (starches) comprise the main source of calories.

From 1949 until 1977, the dietary recommendations of Canada’s Food Guide were for people to consume

~20-30% of their daily calories as carbohydrate

~40-50% of daily calories as fat

~20-30% of daily calories as protein

From 1977 onward, Canada’s Food Guide recommended that people consume:

55-60% of daily calories as carbohydrate

<30% of daily calories as fat, with no more than 1/3 from saturated fat

15-20% of daily calories as protein

The US recommendations since 1977 have been similar to those in Canada, with the Dietary Goals for the United States recommending that carbohydrates are 55-60% of daily calories and that calories from fat be no more than 30% of daily calories (of which no more than 1/3 comes from saturated fat).

Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide which came out in 2015, recommends that people eat even more of their daily calories as carbohydrate;

45-65% of daily calories as carbohydrate

20-35% of daily calories as fat, with no more than 1/3 from saturated fat

10-35% of daily calories as protein

[Reference: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/reference/table/ref_macronutr_tbl-eng.php]

Health Canada recommends limiting fat to only 20-35% of calories  while eating 45-65% of daily calories as carbohydrates and currently advise adults to eat only 30-45 mL (2 – 3 Tbsp) of unsaturated fat per day  (including that used in cooking, salad dressing and spreads such as margarine and mayonnaise).

This is what people have come to call a “balanced diet“.

But is it?

For the past 40 years, the public has come to believe that ‘eating fat made you fat’ and that eating saturated fat caused heart disease. Evidence-based research does not seem to support that having a diet rich in healthy fats – especially monounsaturated fats like from olive and its oil, and avocados, nut and seeds and omega 3 fats from fish causes heart disease.

Our society has become “fat phobic”. People guzzle skim or 1% milk with little regard to the fact that just 1 cup (250 ml) has almost the same amount of carbs as a slice of bread.  And who drinks only one cup of milk at a time?  Most people’s “juice glasses” are 8 oz and the glasses they drink milk from are 16 oz, which is 2 cups. Who ever stops to think of their glass of milk as having the same amount of carbs as almost 2 slices of bread? 

In addition, carbs are hidden in the 7-10 servings of Vegetables and Fruit they are recommended to eat  – with no distinction made between starchy- and non-starchy vegetables.  Many people eat most of their vegetable servings as carbohydrate-laden starchy vegetables such as peas, corn, potatoes and sweet potatoes and then have a token serving of non-starchy vegetables (like salad greens, asparagus or broccoli) on the “side” at dinner. Who stops to think that just a 1/2 cup serving of peas or corn has as many carbs as a slice of bread – and often those vegetables are eaten with a cup of potatoes, adding the equivalent number of carbs as another 2 slices of bread? 

People drink fruit juice and “smoothies” with no regard for all of the extra carbs they are consuming (not to mention the effect that all of that fructose has).  A “small juice glass” is 8 oz, so just a glass of orange juice has the equivalent number of carbs as another 2 slices of bread! Many grab a smoothie at lunch or for coffee break without even thinking that the average smoothie has the same number of carbs as 5 slices of bread!

Then there is the toast, bagels and cereal or bars that people eat for breakfast, the sandwiches or wraps they eat for lunch and the pasta or rice they have for supper.  These are carbs people know as carbs — which are added to all the carbs they consumed as vegetables, fruit and milk.

What has been the outcome of people following these dietary recommendations to eat a high carb diet since 1977 ?

Obesity Rates

In 1977, obesity rates* were 7.6% for men and 11.7% for women, with the combined rate of < 10 % for both genders.

* Obesity is defined as a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30 kg/(m)2

In 1970-72 the obesity rate in Canadian adults was 10% and by 2009-2011, it increased two and a half times, to 26%.

In 1970-72, only 7.6% of men were obese but by 2013, 20.1% of men were categorized as obese. In 1970-72, only 11.7% of women were obese but by 2013, 17.4% of women were obese.

In 1978 in Canada, only 15% of children and adolescents were overweight or obese, yet by 2007 that prevalence almost DOUBLED to 29% of children and adolescents being overweight or obese. By 2011obesity prevalence alone (excluding overweight prevalence) for boys aged 5- to 17 years was 15.1% and for girls was 8.0%.

The emphasis since 1977 on consuming diets high in carbohydrates and low in fat has taken its toll.

Effect on Health

Non-alcoholic liver disease is rampant and not surprisingly, considering 37% of adults and 13% of youth are abdominally (or truncally) obese – that is, they are carrying their excess body fat around and in the internal organs, including the liver.

Since the 1970’s, Diabetes rates have almost doubled.

  • In the 1970s, the rate of Type 2 Diabetes in women was 2.6% and in men was 3.4 %. In the 1980s that number rose in women to 3.8% and in men to 4.5%. In the 1990s the rate was almost double what it was in 1970in women it was 4.7% and  in men, 7.5%.

If people eating a high carb, low fat diet has corresponded to an increase in obesity, overweight and Diabetes, then what’s the alternative?

That is where a low carb high healthy fat diet comes in , which supplies adequate, but not excess protein. It enables us to use our own fat stores for energy, and to make our own glucose (for our blood and brain) with ketones (that are naturally produced by our bodies when we sleep, for example) to fuel our cells and organs. Since humans are designed to run on carbs (in times of plenty) and in our fat stores (when food is less plentiful), being in mild ketosis is a normal physiological state. By eating a low carb high fat diet when we’re hungry and delaying eating for short periods, we can mimic the conditions that were common to our ancestors. By eating this way over an extended period of time, we can bring down insulin levels and as a result, decrease the insulin resistance of our cells. We can improve our blood sugar, lower our blood pressure and see our LDL cholesterol and triglycerides come down to normal, healthy levels.

Want to know more?

Why not send me a note using the Contact Us form located above?

To your health!

Joy

Note: Everyone's results following a LCHF lifestyle will differ as there is no one-size-fits-all approach and everybody's nutritional needs and health status is different. If you want to adopt this kind of lifestyle, please discuss it with your doctor, first.

Copyright ©2017 The LCHF-Dietitian (a division of BetterByDesign Nutrition Ltd.) 

LEGAL NOTICE: The contents of this blog, including text, images and cited statistics as well as all other material contained here (the “content”) are for information purposes only.  The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, medical diagnosis and/or treatment and is not suitable for self-administration without the knowledge of your physician and regular monitoring by your physician. Do not disregard medical advice and always consult your physician with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or before implementing anything  you have read or heard in our content.


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What is a Ketogenic Diet and Why Eat Keto?

A ketogenic diet (also called a “keto” diet) is a low carbohydrate high fat diet which supplies adequate, but not excess protein and low levels of carbohydrate that is naturally found in foods such as non-starchy vegetables, nuts and seeds, and certain fruit.

A keto diet enables our bodies to burn our own fat stores quite efficiently for energy, while making the glucose needed by our blood and brain, and using ketone (which our body naturally produces as we sleep) for energy for our cells and organs.

Note: Not all low carb diets are ketogenic diets.  There are many types of low carb diets, ranging from moderately low carb diets (130 g carbs) to ketogenic diets (5-10% net carbs) and everything in between. 

People wanting to follow a low carb diet and taking medication to lower their blood sugar and/or blood pressure should discuss this with their doctor, first. 

As well, blood pressure should be taken once a day at minimum and blood glucose levels should be taken several times per day as blood glucose levels and blood pressure will decrease, and medication may need to be adjusted by your doctor.

Ketogenic Macronutrient Ratio

Generally speaking, the percentage of calories (kcals) from carbohydrate (carbs), protein and fat in a ketogenic diet (called the macronutrient ratio) is as follows;

65-75% of calories from fat

~20% of calories from protein

5-10% of calories from NET carbs (which is the carbohydrate in food, minus the insoluble fiber found in that food)

While each person’s energy needs and macronutrient needs are different (based on their age, gender and activity level, as well as any pre-existing medical conditions they may have), most people on ketogenic diets take in 10% or less of their calories from net carbohydrates*, with the amount of fat and protein intake varying from person-to-person within the above range.

* Net carbs are determined by subtracting insoluble fiber contained in food from the carbohydrate content of that food.

By eating low levels of carbohydrate, insulin level falls and glucagon and epinephrine levels in the blood rise.

This causes several things to occur;

  1. Fat stores are burned for energy
    The fat stored in fat cells (called adipocytes) are released into the blood as free fatty acids and glycerol. Since fatty acids contain a great deal of energy, they are broken down in cells that have mitochondria in a sequence of reactions known as β-oxidation, and acetyl-CoA is produced. This acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle where the acetyl group is burned for energy.


  2. Glucose is made for energy 
    When insulin levels are low (or absent) and glucagon levels in the blood are high, glucose is produced via gluconeogenesis (literally, the “making of glucose”) and then released into the blood and used as an energy source. As elaborated on below, while the brain can use ketones for fuel, it has a need for some glucose.


  3. Ketones are produced for energy 
    In significant carb restriction over several days, gluconeogenesis is stimulated by the low insulin and high glucagon levels results in acetyl-CoA being used for the formation of ketones (i.e. acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and their breakdown product, acetone). These ketones are released by the liver into the blood where they are taken up by cells with mitochondria and reconverted back into acetyl-CoA, which can then be used as fuel for energy, in the citric acid cycleKetones can cross the blood-brain barrier, so they are used as fuel for the cells of the central nervous system – acting as a substitute for glucose (which is normally the end result of the body breaking down carbs and sugars found in various foods). After ~ 3 days on a very low carb diet, the brain will get ~ 25% of its energy from ketones and the other 75% from the glucose made via gluconeogenesis.  After ~ 4 days the brain will get about 70% of its energy from ketones. While the brain can use ketones for some or even most of its fuel, it still has requirement for some glucose and that is supplied from gluconeogenesis. The heart ordinarily prefers to use fats as fuel but when carbs are restricted, it effectively uses ketones.

    Ketosis versus Ketoacidosis

    Ketones are naturally produced during periods of low carb intake or in periods of fasting and during periods of prolonged intense exercise. This state is called ketosisSince the human body is designed to use glucose as a fuel source (in times of plenty) and to use fatty acids and ketones (in times of food shortage), ketosis is a normal, physiological state.

    In untreated (or inadequately treated) Type 1 Diabetics (where the beta cells of the pancreas don’t produce insulin), the ketones that are produced are as the first stage of a serious medical state called ketoacidosis.

    Ketosis, on the other hand is a normal, naturally occurring state that occurs naturally when we sleep for example or miss a meal, whereas ketoacidosis is a serious medical state associated most commonly associated with Type 1 Diabetes. While often confused, these two conditions are very different.

Ketogenic Diet

A ketogenic diet may appear at first glance to be like the Atkins diet or other low carb, high fat diets but the main difference is that in a keto diet, protein is not unlimited. The reason for this is that excess protein will be converted into glycogen and have a similar effect on ketosis as eating too many carbs, disrupting ketosis.

Since having too little protein may cause muscle loss, a keto diet is designed to have adequate, but not excess protein.

But why eat a keto diet?

The last 40 years of burgeoning rates of overweightobesity and Diabetes, provide the motivation. (Please read the next article titled 1977 Dietary Recommendations — forty years on for a summary of those issues).

keto diet is predominantly used for clinical reasons to seek to reverse the symptoms of Diabetes by enabling insulin levels to fall, glucagon and epinephrine levels to rise, resulting in the body:

(1) naturally accessing its own fat stores for fuel

(2) manufacturing its own glucose

and

(3) using ketone bodies for energy.

The human body is designed to use either glucose or fatty acids and ketones as a fuel source. Ketosis is a normal, physiological state where our bodies run almost entirely on fat.

Insulin levels become very low, which has benefit to those who are insulin resistant or Type 2 Diabetic. 

As a result, burning of our own body fat stores for energy increases dramatically — which is great for those who want to lose weight, without hunger and a steady supply of energy.

Want to know more?

Feel free to send me a note using the Contact Us form, above.

To your health!

Joy


Note: Everyone's results following a LCHF lifestyle will differ as there is no one-size-fits-all approach and everybody's nutritional needs and health status are different. If you want to adopt this kind of lifestyle, please discuss it with your doctor, first.

Copyright ©2017 The LCHF-Dietitian (a division of BetterByDesign Nutrition Ltd.) 

LEGAL NOTICE: The contents of this blog, including text, images and cited statistics as well as all other material contained here (the “content”) are for information purposes only.  The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, medical diagnosis and/or treatment and is not suitable for self-administration without the knowledge of your physician and regular monitoring by your physician. Do not disregard medical advice and always consult your physician with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or before implementing anything  you have read or heard in our content.

 https://twitter.com/joykiddieRD

  https://www.facebook.com/lchfRD/