Ideal Low Carb High Fat Meal Replacement Shake

This recipe is posted as a courtesy to those following a variety of low-carb and ketogenic diets (not necessarily Meal Plans designed by me). This recipe may or may not be appropriate for you.

One of the services that I provide my clients are meal planning ideas and recipes – only a few of which end up on this web page.  One of the meals that people find the most challenging is breakfast, for several reasons.  First of all, many have been used to eating cereal or toast in the morning and now that they’re following a low carb / keto lifestyle they are at a little bit of a loss for what to eat.

The other challenge that many have in the morning is a lack of time.  They’re busy and sometimes don’t have the time to cook, but still need to eat!

While it may be tempting to grab a box of commercially available low-carb ‘specialty products’ available at a pharmacy or health-food store, these cost ~$4.50-$5.00 each packet and contain a variety of flavour (natural and artificial), colour, preservatives and thickening agents such as xanthan gum. Some of these types of products are not only ‘low carb’, but ‘low fat’ and/or calorie-restricted, as well. Typical nutrition information for these types of meal replacement shakes or bars are as follows;

Nutrition Facts - per 1 

Fat 0 gm
Carbohydrate 1-2 gm
Protein 18 - 20 gm
Energy 80 - 82 calories

These are essentially protein powder with flavouring and thickening agents.

For those following a low carb high fat ketogenic style of eating, this smoothie is very easy, healthy, and that can be used “as is” or as the basis for a whole host of other low-carb shakes as limitless as your imagination. It contains no flavour, colour, preservatives or thickeners and costs almost half ($2.50 per serving) of what a commercially available packet would cost.

What makes this shake “ideal” as a meal replacement for whose lifestyle is low carb high fat is that it  (1) has the equivalent protein found in an average meal on either a moderately low carb or low carb high fat diet. The ingredients are (2) available at most large chain supermarkets and the shake (3) requires no special equipment to make. It has ingredients that are (4) documented to help promote weight and abdominal fat loss* and that will (5) keep you from feeling hungry for a long time due to the type of protein and amount of fat it contains, and is (6) high in antioxidants. Best of all, (7) it can be made in minutes!

*see Role of Green Tea Powder (Matcha) in Weight and Abdominal Fat Loss

What’s not to love?

The ingredients are available at most large supermarkets and it really doesn’t matter which brand of matcha, ‘daily greens’ mixture or whey protein you buy, but I’ve mentioned a few things that I look for when purchasing these ingredients, to help guide you.

There are many different brands of matcha available (the best ones come from Japan and Taiwan) and almost all large food chains produce their own brand and/or sell a variety brands of ‘daily green’ mixtures and whey protein isolate. I recommend that you read the labels to be sure they don’t contain any added sugar or sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, etc.) as these will add needless carbs.  These products are usually stocked with either ‘natural foods’ or in the pharmacy section of the store.

I always buy whatever brand of boxed coconut milk is available as it does not require preservatives (canned ones do). Any brand from Thailand, Indonesia or Malaysia that is pure coconut milk and not thickened with carrageenan, guar gum or xanthan gum is good. I usually have 10 boxes of 250 ml and 500 ml pure coconut milk on hand so I can make these shakes or my ‘matcha smoothie recipe‘ (which is great on intermittent fast days as an alternative to ‘bone broth”as there is almost no protein or carbs in it).

If you’re in a rush, this shake can be made quickly in a bowl and poured over ice and enjoyed…

 

…or if you have a few extra minutes and a blender, it can be whirred with a little extra ice to make a wonderful meal replacement smoothie.

 

 

Here’s the recipe:

Low Carb HIGH FAT Ideal Meal Replacement Shake

1 tsp (2.5 ml / 2 gm) powdered green tea (matcha) powder
1/2 scoop (5 g) ‘daily greens’ mixture, mixed berry
1 scoop (30 g) whey protein isolate, unflavoured
1 cup* (250 ml) boxed coconut milk (without preservatives or added gums)
1 cup (250 ml) iced-cold water
4-8 ice cubes

[*NOTE: for those in the weight loss phase of a Phinney and Volek style LCHF eating plan, it will be necessary to limit the amount of coconut milk in this drink.]

Method

  1. Place the green tea (matcha) powder and ‘daily greens’ mixture in a small stainless steel sieve and gently rub through the sieve into a small ceramic bowl, using the back of a spoon. Discard any residue from the sieve.

  2. Add the unflavoured whey protein isolate to the ceramic bowl.


  3. Using a whisk (or if you have one, a bamboo whisk available at Japanese and Korean grocery stores) add 3 Tbsp boiled water, while stirring with the whisk.  Keep stirring briskly until all the lumps are gone and the mixture is smooth.

  4. Stir in the coconut milk, blending well.

  5. Pour mixture into a tall, insulated 2-3 cup (500-750 ml) travel tumbler, add ice cold water and ice cubes and enjoy!

 

Nutrition Facts - per 2 cup (500 ml) serving

Fat 34 gm
Carbohydrate 8 gm
Protein 27 gm
Energy 446 kcal
Macronutrient Distribution – Ideal LCHF Meal Replacement Shake

If you would like to read well-researched, credible “Science Made Simple”  articles on the use of a low carb or ketogenic diet for weight loss, as well as to significantly improve and even reverse the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes, high cholesterol and other metabolic-related symptoms, please  click here.

You can follow me at:

 https://twitter.com/lchfRD

  https://www.facebook.com/lchfRD/

Keto Eggnog – for the holidays

This recipe is posted as a courtesy to those following a variety of low-carb and ketogenic diets (not necessarily Meal Plans designed by me). This recipe may or may not be appropriate for you.

What would the holidays be without eggnog? I’m not talking about the artificially yellow-coloured, carrageenan-thickened beverage from the supermarket, but real eggnog rich with egg yolks and heavy cream. That’s what I’m taking about!

Whether its for Christmas Eve or New Years, eggnog embodies the holidays.

According to Statistics Canada, during the 2014 holiday season, Canadians drank ~5.3 million litres of commercially made ‘eggnog’, but apparently a decade ago, it was closer to 8 million litres! Perhaps the mistaken belief that saturated fat is ‘bad’ for us has led to the decline, or maybe it is simply that the commercial-prepared substitute pales in comparison to real eggnog.

The National Dairy Code defines eggnog as;

“food made from milk and cream containing milk and cream which has been flavoured and sweetened. The food shall contain not less than 3.25 per cent milk fat and not less than 23 per cent total solids.”

Milk and cream?

Real eggnog is made from lots of egg yolks and cream – heavy cream and light cream. It is delicately flavoured with freshly grated nutmeg and some also add a hint of real vanilla extract (made from vanilla beans, soaked in vodka) and yes, it is often served liberally mixed with rum.

In days gone by, eggnog was made from raw egg yolks, but my recipe cooks the egg yolks over a double boiler then holds them at a high enough heat to make them safe. It is lightly sweetened and then blended with cream and spices and placed in a glass milk bottle, until well chilled.  Yes, it is enjoyed with real rum (carb free).

Here is my recipe for eggnog – just in time for the holidays!


Keto Eggnog

6 egg yolks, large (from free range chickens, bright yellow yolks)
1/2 cup heavy cream (whipping cream)
1/4 cup of Xyla® brand sweetener (erythritol)
1 tsp nutmeg, freshly grated
1 litre coffee cream (10% BF)

  1. In the top of a double boiler (not over hot water), whisk the egg yolks, heavy cream and erythritol sweetener to blend well.

  2. Bring water in the bottom of the double boiler to a gentle boil and place the top part, with the eggs on top.  From this point on, whisk constantly without stopping (otherwise you will have scrambled eggs).

  3. Whisk vigorously and constantly until the mixture is thickened and keep whisking until an instant-read thermometer inserted into the mixture reads 140°F for 3 minutes or longer.The mixture should be thick enough to completely coat the back of a spoon.


  4. Remove the top part of the double boiler and keep whisking the mixture a little while longer, as it begins to cool down.

  5. Add the freshly grated nutmeg (and splash of real vanilla, if using) and whisk another 2 minutes or so, as the mixture continues to cool.

6. When the mixture has reached room temperature, gently whisk in the coffee cream and place in a glass milk bottle or glass pitcher with a tight fitting cover, so the eggnog doesn’t absorb the smells of other foods in the fridge.Allow the eggnog to chill thoroughly before serving (with or without rum).


Enjoy!

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!

Joy

 

 


If you would like to read well-researched, credible “Science Made Simple”  articles on the use of a low carb or ketogenic diet for weight loss, as well as to significantly improve and even reverse the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes, high cholesterol and other metabolic-related symptoms, please  click here.

You can follow me at:

 https://twitter.com/lchfRD

  https://www.facebook.com/lchfRD/


Reference

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/egg-nog-christmas-drink-alcohol-eggs-milk-fink-1.3871400

 

ACV Gingeraid Recipe with Variations – food as medicine

In both a recent A Dietitian’s Journey entry (Food as Medicine – dramatically lower blood sugar) and an academic article (Food as Medicine to Lower Blood Glucose – scientific support), I discussed the use of- and scientific basis for consuming beverages containing apple cider vinegar, ginger, turmeric root, and kombucha in lowering blood sugar levels.  In this post, I provide the recipe for “ACV Gingeraid” along with the different variations mentioned in the above-mentioned articles.

These beverages are most effective in lowering blood glucose when drunk immediately after a meal containing carbohydrates and nightly, before bed.

NOTE: Given the possibility of these ordinary foods resulting in a dramatic drop in blood sugar, if you are taking any medication, especially for controlling high blood sugar, check with your doctor before adding any of these foods to your diet.

ACV Gingeraid – basic recipe

1 litre water, carbonated (or use Club Soda/Seltzer) 
2 tsp apple cider vinegar, unpasteurized, unfiltered
1 tsp ginger root, washed, peeled, freshly grated

In a 1 litre of carbonated water (Club Soda/Seltzer), add 2 tsp of unpasteurized, unfiltered apple cider vinegar such as Braggs®. Allen’s® also makes one, but read the labels carefully, as their regular apple cider vinegar is pasteurized and hence does not contain the “mother”, or culture. Using a very fine grater, grate a 1″ x 1″ knob of washed and peeled ginger root and add it to the acidulated water. Cover tightly and chill if desired, before drinking or drink at room temperature.


Turmeric ACV Gingeraid

 1 litre water, carbonated (or use Club Soda/Seltzer) 
2 tsp apple cider vinegar, unpasteurized, unfiltered
1 tsp ginger root, washed, peeled, freshly grated
1/2 tsp turmeric root, peeled, freshly grated
1/8 tsp black pepper corns, freshly ground

In a 1 litre of carbonated water (Club Soda/Seltzer), add 2 tsp of unpasteurized, unfiltered apple cider vinegar such as Braggs® or  Allen’s® unpasteurized. Using a very fine grater, grate a 1″ x 1″ knob of washed and peeled ginger root and add it to the acidulated water. Using a polyethylene kitchen glove or plastic sandwich bag on the hand holding the turmeric root, on the same grater, grate a 1/2″ by 1/2″ piece of turmeric root and add it to the Gingeraid. Add a few grindings of freshly ground black pepper (increases bioavailability of turmeric, due to it containing piperine). Cover tightly and chill if desired, before drinking or drink at room temperature.


Kombucha – ACV Gingeraid

1/2 litre water, carbonated (or use Club Soda/Seltzer) 
1/2 liter Kombucha
2 tsp apple cider vinegar, unpasteurized, unfiltered
1 tsp ginger root, washed, peeled, freshly grated
In a 1 litre bottle suitable for carbonated drinks, add the carbonated water (Club Soda/Seltzer) and Kombucha (any flavour). Be sure to choose brands with as few carbohydrates as possible, or brew your own using a low sugar recipe.
To this mixture, add 2 tsp of unpasteurized, unfiltered apple cider vinegar such as Braggs® or  Allen’s® unpasteurized.
Using a very fine grater, grate a 1″ x 1″ knob of washed and peeled ginger root and add it to the acidulated water.
Cover tightly and chill if desired, before drinking or drink at room temperature.
By changing the fruit that the second fermentation of Kombucha is made with, the flavour changes substantially.  The fructose in the fruit is largely consumed by the acetic acid bacteria during the second fermentation.

Turmeric Kombucha – ACV Gingeraid

1/2 litre water, carbonated (or use Club Soda/Seltzer) 
1/2 liter Kombucha
2 tsp apple cider vinegar, unpasteurized, unfiltered
1 tsp ginger root, washed, peeled, freshly grated
1/2 tsp turmeric root, peeled, freshly grated
1/8 tsp black pepper corns, freshly ground
In a 1 litre bottle suitable for carbonated drinks, add the carbonated water (Club Soda/Seltzer) and Kombucha (any flavour). Be sure to choose brands with as few carbohydrates as possible, or brew your own using a low sugar recipe.
To this mixture, add 2 tsp of unpasteurized, unfiltered apple cider vinegar such as Braggs® or  Allen’s® unpasteurized.
Using a very fine grater, grate a 1″ x 1″ knob of washed and peeled ginger root and add it to the acidulated water. Using a polyethylene kitchen glove or plastic sandwich bag on the hand holding the turmeric root, on the same grater, grate a 1/2″ by 1/2″ piece of turmeric root and add it to the Gingeraid. Add a few grindings of freshly ground black pepper (for the piperine, see above)
Cover tightly and chill if desired, before drinking or drink at room temperature.
Enjoy!


If you would like to read well-researched, credible “Science Made Simple”  articles on the use of a low carb or ketogenic diet for weight loss, as well as to significantly improve and even reverse the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes, high cholesterol and other metabolic-related symptoms, please  click here.


you can follow me at:

 https://twitter.com/lchfRD

  https://www.facebook.com/lchfRD/

Copyright ©2017 The LCHF-Dietitian (a division of BetterByDesign Nutrition Ltd.) 

LEGAL NOTICE: The contents of this blog, including text, images and cited statistics as well as all other material contained here (the “content”) are for information purposes only.  The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, medical diagnosis and/or treatment and is not suitable for self-administration without the knowledge of your physician and regular monitoring by your physician. Do not disregard medical advice and always consult your physician with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or before implementing anything  you have read or heard in our content.

Bullet-less Low Carb Cappuccino and Latte

This recipe is posted as a courtesy to those following a variety of low-carb and ketogenic diets (not necessarily Meal Plans designed by me). This recipe may or may not be appropriate for you.

Okay, so it is Monday morning and a double or triple espresso cappuccino or latte is what you want, but not with all the carbs in the foamed milk.

Since weight-loss is one of your goals, and you know from reading an earlier article on leptin differences in overweight versus lean people that drinking “bulletproof coffee is not the best way to go, is there an alternative?

Yes there is!

I call it “Bullet-less Cappuccino“.

Bullet-less cappuccino

Bullet-less cappuccino (or latte) is made the same way as a regular cappuccino or latte, except instead of foaming milk (which has 12 carbs per cup!), I use 1/2 oz of heavy (whipping) cream diluted with 2 oz of ice cold filtered water. The ratio of cream to water can be changed to suit your taste and the amount of foam you want, and the total volume made can be adjusted depending on whether you want cappuccino or latte – but the good news is that regardless, the result is carb-free!

Since my diet naturally contains ~ 75% healthy fat and I was quite overweight before (obese, actually), I keep the amount of cream used low, so I don’t need to add much extra fat outside of those found naturally in the foods I eat.

This drink is very satisfying and is a great way to start an intermittent fast day. Yes, you can drink this while fasting as it does not cause an insulin release, because it is carb-free.

Whether you make it yourself, as I do or ask the barista at your favourite coffee house to make it for you…enjoy!

Be sure to read this new article about how starting your day with coffee has been found to boost nutritional ketosis. A summary of the study and results here: https://www.lchf-rd.com/2017/08/21/caffeine-substantially-increases-plasma-ketones-in-healthy-adults/


If you would like to read well-researched, credible “Science Made Simple”  articles on the use of a low carb or ketogenic diet for weight loss, as well as to significantly improve and even reverse the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes, high cholesterol and other metabolic-related symptoms, please  click here.

you can follow me at:

 https://twitter.com/lchfRD

  https://www.facebook.com/lchfRD/

Note: Everyone's results following a LCHF lifestyle will differ as there is no one-size-fits-all approach and everybody's nutritional needs and health status is different. If you want to adopt this kind of lifestyle, please discuss it with your doctor, first.

Copyright ©2017 The LCHF-Dietitian (a division of BetterByDesign Nutrition Ltd.) 

LEGAL NOTICE: The contents of this blog, including text, images and cited statistics as well as all other material contained here (the “content”) are for information purposes only.  The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, medical diagnosis and/or treatment and is not suitable for self-administration without the knowledge of your physician and regular monitoring by your physician. Do not disregard medical advice and always consult your physician with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or before implementing anything  you have read or heard in our content.

Low Carb Green Tea Matcha Smoothie – role in weight and abdominal fat loss

This recipe is posted as a courtesy to those following a variety of low-carb and ketogenic diets (not necessarily Meal Plans designed by me). This recipe may or may not be appropriate for you.

This delicious low carb high fat Matcha Smoothie can help you lose weight & abdominal fat. The science behind it, the recipe & the nutritional info is in this article.


Green tea is the unfermented leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant and contains a number of biologically active compounds called catechins of which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) makes up ~ 30% of the solids in green tea [Kim et al]. Studies have found that green tea catechins, especially EGCG play a significant role in both weight loss and lower body fat composition.

Population studies and several randomized controlled studies (where one group is “treated” and the other group is not) have shown that waist circumference is smaller and levels of body fat is less the more green tea consumed   [Phung et al].  The anti-obesity effects of green tea are usually attributed to the presence of catechins [Naigle].

Several large-scale population studies have linked increased green tea consumption with significant reductions in metabolic syndrome – a cluster of clinical symptoms which include insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia (high levels of circulating insulin), Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension or high blood pressurecardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis.

It is thought that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea, mimics the actions of insulin.  This has positive health implications for people with insulin resistance or Type 2 Diabetes [Kao et al]. 

EGCG also lowers blood pressure  almost as effectively as the ACE-inhibitor drug, Enalapril, having significant implications for people with hypertension (high blood pressure) and cardiovascular disease [Kim et al].

Research indicates that drinking 8-10 cups of green tea per day is enough to increase blood levels of EGCG into a measurably significant range [Kim et al]. 

The most effective way to reduce the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome is through a low carb high healthy fat diet, however the addition of green tea as a beverage – especially as matcha green tea powder, may provide a means to preferentially target abdominal weight loss. 

GREEN TEA CATECHINS

Catechins make up ~ 30% of green tea’s dry weight (of which 60–80% are catechins) and oolong and black tea  (which are produced from partially fermented or completely fermented tea leaves) contains approximately half the catechin content of green tea.

Matcha, a powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony and popular in cold green tea beverages contains 137 times greater concentration of EGCG than China Green Tip tea (Mao Jian) [Weiss et al]. 

GREEN TEA CATECHIN CONTENT OF BREWED GREEN TEA VS MATCHA POWDER

A typical cup (250 ml) of brewed green tea contains 50–100 mg catechins and 30–40 mg caffeine, with the amount of tea leaves, water temperature and brewing time all affecting the green tea catechin content in each cup.

A gram (~1/3 tsp) of matcha powder contains 105 mg of catechins – of which 61 mg are EGCGs and contains 35 mg of caffeine. Most matcha drinks made at local tea and coffee houses are made and served cold and contain ~1 tsp of matcha powder which contains ~315 mg of catechins – of which ~183 mg are EGCs.   

WEIGHT LOSS EFFECT OF GREEN TEA CATECHINS

A 2009 meta-analysis (combining the data from all studies) of 11 green tea catechin studies found that subjects consuming between 270 to 1200 mg green tea catechins / day (1 – 4 tsp of matcha powder per day) lost an average of 1.31 kg (~ 3 lbs) over 12 weeks with no other dietary or activity changes [Hursel].

Body composition EFFECT OF GREEN TEA CATECHINS

The effect of green tea catechins on body composition is significant – even when the weight loss between “treated” and “untreated” groups is small (~5 lbs in 12 weeks).

Even with such small amounts of weight loss;

the total amount of abdominal fat decreased 25 times more with green tea catechin consumption than without it (−7.7 vs. −0.3%)

and

 total amount of subcutaneous abdominal fat (the fat just below the skin of the abdomen) decreases almost 8 times more with green tea catechin consumption than without it (−6.2 vs. 0.8%). 

HOW DO GREEN TEA CATECHINS WORK?

The mechanisms by which green tea catechins reduce body weight  and reduce the amount of total body fat and in particular reduce the amount of abdominal fat are still being investigated.  It is currently thought that green tea catechins;

–          increased thermogenesis; i.e. increased heat production which would result in increased energy expenditure (or calorie burning)

–          increase fat oxidation i.e. using body fat as energy. For those on a low fat high fat diet, this is good!

–          decrease appetite

–          down-regulation of enzymes involved in liver fat metabolism (fat storage)  

WARNING TO PREGNANT WOMEN

While EGCG has also been found to be similar in its effect to etoposide anddoxorubicin, a potent anti-cancer drug used in chemotherapy [Bandele et al], high intake of polyphenolic compounds during pregnancy is suspected to increase risk of neonatal leukemia. Bioflavonoid supplements (including green tea catechins) should not be used by pregnant women [Paolini et al].


low carb Green Tea Matcha Smoothie Recipe

Total carbs: 2.5 gm per serving – contains ~315 mg catechins

Ingredients

1 tsp matcha (green tea) powder * (1 tsp = 2 gm)

12 cubes ice, crushed

1/2 cup (125 ml) coconut milk  

optional: 1/2 tsp Silan (Middle Eastern date syrup) – will add an additional 3.5 g carbs to the recipe

Method

  1. Place 1 tsp matcha powder in a small stainless steel sieve and gently press through the sieve into a small bowl with the back of a small spoon
  2. Put the sieved matcha powder into a ceramic or glass bowl (not metal, as the tannins in the tea will react and give the beverage and “off” metalic taste)
  3. With a bamboo whisk (available at Japanese and Korean grocery stores) or a plain spoon, whisk 3 Tbsp boiled and cooled water into the matcha powder, until all the lumps are gone and the mixture is smooth
  4. Place a whole tray of ice cubes (12) into a blender
  5. Pour matcha and water mixture over ice in the glass
  6. Pour coconut milk on top of ice and matcha
  7. Pulse until desired texture is achieved*

*I blend mine just fine enough to be able to drink it through a straw.

Enjoy!

If you would like to read well-researched, credible “Science Made Simple”  articles on the use of a low carb or ketogenic diet for weight loss, as well as to significantly improve and even reverse the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes, high cholesterol and other metabolic-related symptoms, please  click here.

you can follow me at:

 https://twitter.com/lchfRD

  https://www.facebook.com/lchfRD/


Nutritional Information

Calories 91.48
Saturated Fat 7.7 gm
Cholesterol 0 mg
Sodium 7.5 mg
Carbohydrates 1 gm
Dietary Fiber 770 mg
Protein 1.1 gm

Calcium 8.8 mg
Vitamin A (Retinol Equivalents) 198.4 mg
B-Carotene 1.2 gm
Magnesium 4.6 mg
Vitamin B1 .12 mg
Potassium 54 mg
Vitamin B2 .027 mg
Phosphorus 7.0 mg
Vitamin B6 .018 mg
Iron .34 mg
Vitamin C .12 mg
Sodium .12 mg
Vitamin E .562 mg
Zinc .126 mg
Vitamin K 58 mcg
Copper .012 mg

Polyphenols 200 mg
Caffeine 50 mg
Theophylline 0.84 mg


References

Bandele, OJ, Osheroff, N. Epigallocatechin gallate, a major constituent of green tea, poisons human type II topoisomerases”.Chem Res Toxicol 21 (4): 936–43, April 2008.

Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009;33:956–61.

Kao YH, Chang MJ, Chen CL, Tea, Obesity, and Diabetes, Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 50 (2): 188–210, February 2006

Kim JA, Formoso G, Li Y, Potenza MA, Marasciulo FL, Montagnani M, Quon MJ., Epigallocatechin gallate, a green tea polyphenol, mediates NO-dependent vasodilation using signaling pathways in vascular endothelium requiring reactive oxygen species and Fyn, J Biol Chem. 2007 May 4;282(18):13736-45. Epub 2007 Mar 15.

Nagle DG, Ferreira D, Zhou YD. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): chemical and biomedical perspective. Phytochemistry 2006;67:1849–55.

Park JH, Jin JY, Baek WK, Park SH, Sung HY, Kim YK, et al. Ambivalent role of gallated catechins in glucose tolerance in humans: a novel insight into nonabsorbable gallated catechin-derived inhibitors of glucose absorption. J Phyisiol Pharmacol 2009;60:101–9.

Phung OJ, Baker WL, Matthews LJ, Lanosa M, Thorne A, Coleman CI. Effect of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on anthropometric measures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:73–81.

Paolini, M, Sapone, A, Valgimigli, L, “Avoidance of bioflavonoid supplements during pregnancy: a pathway to infant leukemia?”. Mutat Res 527 (1–2): 99–101. (Jun 2003)

Rains, TM, Agarwal S, Maki KC, “Antiobesity effects of green tea catechins; a mechanistic review” J or Nutr Biochem 22(2011):1-7

Weiss, DJ, Anderton CR, Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography, Journal of Chromatography A, Vol 1011(1–2):173-180, September 2003