This article provides the references for the text which appears on the front of my webpage.A low carb diet isn't new. In fact this was the standard recommendation prior to the discovery of insulin.
Several years ago, I began to ask myself how it is that 2/3 of men and ~1/2 of women in Canada are either overweight or obese. In the early 1970s, only ~8% of men and ~12% of women were obese and now almost 22% of men and 19% of women are obese- even though statistics show we are eating much less fat, drinking way less pop and eating more fish than ever before. I wondered if the increase in overweight and obesity might be related to the changes in the Dietary Recommendations that began in 1977 and which encourage us to eat 45-65% of daily calories as carbohydrate and to limit all kinds of fat to 20-35%.
In early 2015, after scouring the scientific literature and reading about the clinical use of a Low Carb High Fat (LCHF) diet, I came to the understanding that those who are insulin resistant or have Type 2 Diabetes or have other indicators that they are not tolerating large amounts of carbohydrate well could improve their symptoms significantly by following a lower carb style of eating, with the oversight of their doctors. Such an adjustment in lifestyle seemed like a small price to pay for the potential of significantly improving – and in some cases reversing symptoms of these conditions, especially when compared with the reality that at best these symptoms will stay the same and very likely will get worse over time.
Many scientific studies as well as physician’s clinical experience indicate that a lower carb style of eating combined with extending the time between meals lowers insulin resistance (which is the underlying cause of high blood sugar). When insulin levels are lowered, blood pressure comes down and triglycerides and some other lipid ratios normalize.
Physicians across Canada, the US, the UK and Australia that prescribe a LCHF Diet to their patients have found that they experience a significant improvement in the symptoms of insulin resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, high blood pressure, high triglycerides and that a natural reversal of many symptoms is possible. Such improvements often enable these doctors to reduce- and sometimes discontinue medications that were previously prescribed to their patients for these conditions. While the American Diabetes Association enables Type 2 Diabetics to choose to follow either a moderate low carb diet (130g carbohydrate) or a low fat calorie restricted diet for up to a year for weight loss, as of yet this approach is not approved by Diabetes Canada.
A low carb diet isn’t new. In fact this was the standard recommendation prior to the discovery of insulin.
It seems to me that a lower carbohydrate intake resulting in improved symptoms and lab results as overseen by one’s own doctor is preferable to living with chronic disease symptoms and taking increasing numbers of medications in an effort to manage symptoms, but each person needs to evaluate the alternative and make their own choice.
For those who want to aim to improve or reverse the symptoms of these chronic diseases, I offer services as the LCHF-Dietitian.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, Early Releases (May 11, 2015), Food Guide Under Fire at Obesity Summit: www.cmaj.ca/site/earlyreleases/11may15_food-guide-under-fire-at-obesity-summit.xhtml
2015 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/reports-publications/eating-well-canada-food-guide-resource-educators-communicators-2007.html#a9
1970-1972 Obesity Rates: https://lop.parl.ca/content/lop/ResearchPublications/prb0511-e.htm
2014 Obesity Rates, Statistic Canada – Overweight and obese adults (self-reported), 2014 http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2015001/article/14185-eng.htm
Janssen I, The Public Health Burden of Obesity in Canada, Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 37 (2013), pg. 90-96
from the Public Health Collaborative, Summary Table of Randomized-Controlled Trials Comparing Low Carb to Low-Fat Diets – https://phcuk.org/:
 A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on
Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women. Brehm et al.
 A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Obesity. Foster et al.
 A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity. Samaha et al.
 Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents.
Sondike et al. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022347602402065
 The National Cholesterol Education Program Diet vs a Diet Lower in Carbohydrates and Higher in Protein
and Monounsaturated Fat A Randomized Trial. Aude et al. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?
 A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A
Randomized, Controlled Trial. Yancy et al. http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=717451
 Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body
composition in overweight men and women. Volek et al.
 Comparison of a Low-Fat Diet to a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Risk
Factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Free-Living, Overweight Men and Women. Meckling et
 Lack of suppression of circulating free fatty acids and hypercholesterolemia during weight loss on a highfat,
low-carbohydrate diet. Hernandez et al. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/91/3/578.long
 Perceived Hunger Is Lower and Weight Loss Is Greater in Overweight Premenopausal Women
Consuming a Low-Carbohydrate/High-Protein vs High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet. Nickols-Richardson et al.
 Short-term effects of severe dietary carbohydrate-restriction advice in Type 2 diabetes—a randomized
controlled trial. Daly et al. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01760.x/abstract
 Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia. Krauss et
 Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk
Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women The A TO Z Weight Loss Study: A Randomized Trial.
Gardner et al. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=205916
 Low- and high-carbohydrate weight-loss diets have similar effects on mood but not cognitive
performance. Halyburton et al. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/86/3/580.long
 A low-carbohydrate diet is more effective in reducing body weight than healthy eating in both diabetic
and non-diabetic subjects. Dyson et al. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-
 The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in
type 2 diabetes mellitus. Westman et al. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2633336/
 Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. Shai et al.
 Effects of weight loss from a very-low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial function and markers of
cardiovascular disease risk in subjects with abdominal obesity. Keogh et al.
 Metabolic Effects of Weight Loss on a Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diet Compared With an Isocaloric HighCarbohydrate
Diet in Abdominally Obese Subjects. Tay et al.
 Carbohydrate Restriction has a More Favorable Impact on the Metabolic Syndrome than a Low Fat Diet.
Volek et al. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11745-008-3274-2
 Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet
after 12 mo. Brinkworth et al. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/1/23.long
 Efficacy and Safety of a High Protein, Low Carbohydrate Diet for Weight Loss in Severely Obese
Adolescents. Krebs et al. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892194/
 In type 2 diabetes, randomisation to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves
glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss. Guldbrand et
 A Randomized Pilot Trial of a Moderate Carbohydrate Diet Compared to a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet
in Overweight or Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus or Prediabetes. Saslow et al.
 Effects of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets: A Randomized Trial. Bazzano et al.
 The Role of Energy Expenditure in the Differential Weight Loss in Obese Women on Low-Fat and Low Carbohydrate
Diets. Brehm et al. http://press.endocrine.org/doi/full/10.1210/jc.2004-1540
 Effects of a Low Carbohydrate Weight Loss Diet on Exercise Capacity and Tolerance in Obese Subjects.
Brinkworth et al. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2009.134/full
 Comparative Study of the Effects of a 1-Year Dietary Intervention of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Versus a
Low-Fat Diet on Weight and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes. Davis et al.
 Weight and Metabolic Outcomes After 2 Years on a Low-Carbohydrate Versus Low-Fat Diet: A
Randomized Trial. Foster et al. http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=745937
 Effects of a Low-intensity Intervention That Prescribed a Low-carbohydrate vs. a Low-fat Diet in Obese,
Diabetic Participants. Iqbal et al. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2009.460/full
 Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and
raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects. Ruth et al.
 Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated
fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Noakes et al.
 Long-term Effects of a Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet and a Low-Fat Diet on Mood and Cognitive
Function. Brinkworth et al. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1108558
 The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year
follow-up of a randomized trial. Stern et al. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15148064
 A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs Orlistat Plus a Low-Fat Diet for Weight Loss. Yancy
et al. 2010. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20101008
 A randomized controlled trial of low carbohydrate and low fat/high fiber diets for weight loss. Baron et al.
 A very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. Tay
et al. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25071075
 Randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss programmes in the UK: initial findings from
the BBC “diet trials”. Truby et al. http://www.bmj.com/content/332/7553/1309
 Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets for Weight Loss and Heart Disease
Risk Reduction:A Randomized Trial. Dansinger et al. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?
 Very Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets Affect Fasting Lipids and Postprandial Lipemia Differently in
Overweight Men. Sharman et al. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/134/4/880.long
 Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese
women. McAuley et al. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-004-1603-4/fulltext.html
 Diet-Induced Weight Loss Is Associated with Decreases in Plasma Serum Amyloid A and C-Reactive
Protein Independent of Dietary Macronutrient Composition in Obese Subjects. O’Brien et al.
 Advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet has a favourable impact on low-grade inflammation in type 2
diabetes compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet. Jonasson et al.
 A non-calorie-restricted low-carbohydrate diet is effective as an alternative therapy for patients with type
2 diabetes. Yamada et al. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390522
 Low-Fat Versus Low-Carbohydrate Weight Reduction Diets Effects on Weight Loss, Insulin Resistance,
and Cardiovascular Risk: A Randomized Control Trial. Bradley et al.
 Weight loss with high and low carbohydrate 1200 kcal diets in free living women. Lean et al.
 Evaluation of weight loss and adipocytokines levels after two hypocaloric diets with different
macronutrient distribution in obese subjects with rs9939609 gene variant. De Luis et al.
 Enhanced weight loss with protein-enriched meal replacements in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
Flechtner-Mors et al. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dmrr.1097/abstract
 Long-term effects of a low carbohydrate, low fat or high unsaturated fat diet compared to a nointervention
control. Lim et al. http://www.nmcd-journal.com/article/S0939-4753(09)00124-0/abstract
 A randomized study comparing the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet and a conventional diet on
lipoprotein subfractions and C-reactive protein levels in patients with severe obesity. Seshadri et al.
 Comparison of low- and high-carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial.
Tay et al. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2015/07/29/ajcn.115.112581.abstract
 Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults
and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot trial. Gardner et al.
 Metabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescents.
Partsalaki et al. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23155696
 A randomized controlled trial of 130 g/day low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic
control. Sato et al. http://www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614(16)30169-8/pdf
 Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss
program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Goday et al.
 Visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome after very high–fat and low-fat isocaloric diets: a randomized
controlled trial. Veum et al. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2016/11/30/ajcn.115.123463.abstract
 An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle
Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A
Randomized Controlled Trial. Saslow et al. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28193599